Turkman Chai Agreement
Abstract: Treaty of Torkamanchai (also Turkmenchay) of 1828, agreements signed by Russia and Persia in the village of Turkmanchai (Torkaman), Eastern Azarbaijan province, NW Iran. It ended the Russo-Persian war, which had begun in 1825, and forced Persia to cede part of Persian Armenia to Russia and grant extraterritorial rights. Documents such as Gulustan (October 12, 1813) and Turkmenchai (February 10, 1828) dealt with between Russia and Iran, as well as Kourekchay treaty on May 14, 1805 between Karabakh Khan Ibrahim and the Russian Empire on the transmission of this khanat under Russian rule clearly show that the empire won exclusively the countries of Azerbaijan. Fath Ali Shah`s agreement with Britain played a key role in the signing of the treaty. With the defeat of the Russo-Persian war, the Shah understood that another Russian attack was almost inevitable. Britain regarded the war as not winning for the Persians and used it to strengthen its foreign policy. With its newly acquired diplomatic ties with the British, Persia founded the Defence Alliance Treaty in 1812, which promised that Britain would “offer a defence alliance against further Russian attacks.” Its conditions basically meant that Persia would defend itself against any European army that invaded India, which deployed most of the British troops, in exchange for military and financial resistance from Britain against any future Russian attack.  The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: “Persian” ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Iran Gaddafi and the Russian Empire, which ended the Russo-Persian War (1826-28). Signed on February 2, 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. The treaty gave Persia control of several territories from the South Caucasus to Russia: the Erivan Khanat, the Nakhchivan Khanat and the rest of the Talysch Khanate. The border between Russia and Persia was fixed on the Aras River. The territories are now Armenia, the south of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan and the province of I`dr (now part of Turkey). The Torkamanchai Treaty (also written in Turkmanchai, Turkemanchay, Turkamanchay and Turkmanchay) is a treaty by which Iran, after its defeat in 1828, lost much of its northern territories to Russia, thus ending the second Russo-Persian wars (1827-1828).